A toxic chemical byproduct released during the breakdown of protein in uneaten fish food and decaying wastes. Also excreted by fish through natural metabolic processes.
A toxic byproduct of ammonia produced when beneficial bacteria process ammonia.
Chemical compound formed during the final stage of the nitrogen cycle. It is the least toxic nitrogen byproduct, but in large quantities, nitrate is still dangerous to pond inhabitants.
Proper oxygen level is essential for healthy koi. Chronic low oxygen levels can increase fish susceptibility to disease and can also compromise biological filtration.
A measurement of acidity or alkalinity in your water. Maintaining stable pH level is vital for fish health. A pH range between 6.8 and 7.2 is ideal for koi.
Affects koi ability to digest and utilize food. Adjust koi diet based on water temperature. Water temperature also influences
dissolved oxygen level.
The amount of dissolved salts in water. Essential parameter for koi ponds conditioned with