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Drs. Foster & Smith Pet Food Ingredient Glossary


Drs. Foster & Smith Educational Staff
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Ingredient Description and Function
Alfalfa meal Alfalfa meal is ground alfalfa. In addition to being highly palatable, alfalfa is rich in calcium, vitamins, carotene, and fiber.
Bacillus coagulans Bacillus coagulans are "good bacteria" which are similar to the bacteria used in yogurt with active cultures. They are sometimes referred to as probiotics.
Barley A highly digestible grain, barley is a good source of carbohydrates and fiber. It is also an excellent source of certain B vitamins.
Beef Beef is a delicious, highly digestible protein source with an excellent balance of essential amino acids.
Beef broth Beef broth is obtained by steam-cooking wholesome beef bones containing meat and muscle tissue. The flavorful broth, rich in proteinaceous solids, provides moisture and enhances palatability.
Beef liver Beef liver is high in vitamins including A, D, E, and some of the B vitamins. Liver is also high in protein and mineral content, including iron, zinc, and selenium. Liver contains the essential sulfur-bearing amino acids cysteine and methionine. It also enhances palatability.
Beet pulp Beet pulp is the portion of the sugar beet that remains after the sugar and water have been extracted. It is an excellent fiber source, and helps to support normal bowel function and maintain proper stool firmness.
Biotin Biotin, often considered in the Vitamin B complex of vitamins, is active in the metabolism of fat, carbohydrates, and protein. It is necessary for normal growth, digestion, and muscle function.
Blueberries Blueberries contain phytochemicals (plant chemicals) called flavonoids and anthocyanin. Flavonoids and anthocyanin are antioxidant nutrients.
Brewers rice Brewers rice is the small milled fragments of rice kernels that have been separated from the larger kernels of milled rice. It is an excellent source of carbohydrates and fiber.
Brewer's dried yeast Brewer's dried yeast is of the genus Saccharomyces. It is used for flavor, and is also very nutritious, containing a natural source of B Vitamins, zinc, and not less than 35% protein.
Brown rice Brown rice is the unpolished rice that remains after the hulls have been removed. Brown rice contains carbohydrates and fiber. The bran portion of brown rice also contains B vitamins.
Brown rice flour
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Brown rice flour is finely ground unpolished rice, which remains after the hulls have been removed. Brown rice flour contains carbohydrates and fiber. The bran portion of brown rice also contains B vitamins.
Ingredient Description and Function
Calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate is a source of calcium. Calcium is necessary for blood clotting, muscle function, and transmitting nerve impulses. Calcium and phosphorus also help maintain the proper pH level of the blood.
Calcium pantothenate Calcium pantothenate is a form of Vitamin B5, also called Pantothenic Acid. It enables the body to create usable energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It is also necessary for the production of fatty acids and certain hormones.
Carrageenan Carrageenan, a polysaccharide obtained from the seaweed, Chondrus crispus, functions as a stabilizer, emulsifier, and thickener to enhance the texture of canned pet food.
Carrots Carrots are an excellent source of beta-carotene, a powerful antioxidant nutrient. Carrots also supply a natural source of fiber.
Cellulose Cellulose is a fiber portion from plants that can increase the fiber level in pet foods to support good bowel function.
Chicken Chicken is a delicious, highly digestible protein source, with an excellent quantity and ratio of essential amino acids.
Chicken broth Chicken broth is obtained by steam-cooking wholesome chicken bones and muscle tissue. The flavorful broth, rich in proteinaceous solids, provides moisture and enhances palatability.
Chicken fat Chicken fat, a high-quality source of fat and a delicious flavor enhancer, contains essential fatty acids (especially linoleic acid, an Omega-6 fatty acid) for healthy skin and coat. As a fat, it is an excellent source of energy to help your pet stay active.
Chicken liver Chicken liver is high in vitamins including A, D, E, and some of the B vitamins. Liver is also high in protein and mineral content, including iron, zinc, and selenium. Liver contains the essential sulfur-bearing amino acids cysteine and methionine. It also enhances palatability.
Chicken meal Chicken meal is produced by cooking and drying chicken tissues, then grinding the product into a meal. It is a highly digestible, delicious protein source with essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and minerals.
Choline chloride Choline chloride is a form of the B vitamin choline, which is necessary for maintaining the health of the liver and thymus. It is also required for maintaining cell membrane integrity, and the proper functioning of the nervous system.
Citric acid Naturally occurring in citrus fruit, citric acid prevents growth of an array of organisms and is used as a food preservative.
Cobalt carbonate Cobalt carbonate is a source of cobalt. Cobalt, a trace element, is a component of Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin. Vitamin B12 is necessary for normal DNA synthesis, nervous system function, and the production of red blood cells.
Cobalt proteinate Cobalt proteinate is a chelated form of cobalt. Cobalt, a trace element, is a component of Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin. Vitamin B12 is necessary for normal DNA synthesis, nervous system function, and the production of red blood cells.
Copper proteinate Copper proteinate is a form of chelated copper. Copper is essential for the functioning of many body systems including the production of red blood cells, formation and maintenance of healthy connective tissue and bone, and the proper functioning of the heart, immune system and nervous system. Copper is also an antioxidant nutrient.
Copper sulfate Copper sulfate provides a very useful source of copper. Copper is essential for the functioning of many body systems including the production of red blood cells, formation and maintenance of healthy connective tissue and bone, and the proper functioning of the heart, immune system and nervous system. Copper is also an antioxidant nutrient.
Corn protein concentrate
This concentrated protein source is the protein portion of the corn. It must contain 80% protein on a moisture free basis. It is a good complementary protein source for chicken, meat, and fish, supplying a balance of amino acids.
Cranberries
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Cranberries contain phytochemicals (plant chemicals) called flavonoids and anthocyanin. Flavonoids and anthocyanin are antioxidant nutrients.
Ingredient Description and Function
D-Calcium pantothenate D-Calcium pantothenate is a source of pantothenic acid, one of the B vitamins that is extremely important for proper cell function.
Dicalcium phosphate Dicalcium phosphate is a source of calcium and phosphorus, minerals that promote healthy teeth and bones. Calcium is necessary for blood clotting, muscle function, and transmitting nerve impulses. Phosphorus is necessary for energy production and the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and protein. Calcium and phosphorus also help maintain the proper pH level of the blood.
DL-Methionine DL-Methionine is a sulfur-containing essential amino acid, a building block for protein.
Dried apple pomace Dried apple pomace is produced by removing the cider from the apples. Apples provide essential carbohydrates and Vitamin C. Apples also contain pectin, a natural fiber.
Dried carrots Dried carrots are carrots which have been processed to remove the excess moisture. Carrots are an excellent source of beta-carotene, a powerful antioxidant nutrient. Carrots also supply a natural source of fiber.
Dried egg product Dried egg product is eggs, without shells, that have been dehydrated. Eggs provide great taste, and are an excellent source of high quality and highly digestible protein They also supply energy from fat and are a good source of arachidonic acid, an essential fatty acid for cats.
Dried kelp Dried kelp is dried seaweed of the families Laminariacae and Fucaeae and contains several essential vitamins, trace minerals, and amino acids. Dried kelp also contains fiber, which supports digestive health.
Dried potato product Dried potato product is pieces of potato that have been dried to remove the excess moisture. Potato is a source of carbohydrates and fiber.
Dried skimmed milk Dried skimmed milk, an excellent natural protein source, provides easily digestible protein necessary for growth and maintenance. It also adds to the flavor of the food.
Dried sweet potatoes Dried sweet potatoes are sweet potatoes that have been processed to remove excess moisture. They are an excellent source of complex carbohydrates (fiber), potassium, vitamins, minerals, and beta-carotene.
Egg product Egg product is eggs, without shells. Eggs provide great taste, and are an excellent source of high quality and highly digestible protein They also supply energy from fat and are a good source of arachidonic acid, an essential fatty acid for cats.
Egg whites Egg whites are the whites of eggs, consisting mainly of albumin dissolved in water. They contain highly digestible protein.
Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide
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Ethylenediamine dihydriodide is an excellent source of iodine, which is essential for proper functioning of the thyroid gland and normal cell function.
Ingredient Description and Function
Fish broth Fish broth is obtained by steam-cooking wholesome fish bones and muscle tissue. The flavorful broth, rich in proteinaceous solids, provides moisture and enhances palatability.
Fish meal Fish meal is produced by cooking and drying fish tissues, then grinding the product into a meal. It is an excellent source of high quality protein, plus Omega-3 essential fatty acids, including EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (doscosahexaenoic acid).
Fish oil Fish oil is produced through removing the oil from fish. It is high the in omega-3 fatty acids EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (doscosahexaenoic acid). which help support the health of many organs in the body including skin and joints.
Flaxseed Meal Flaxseed meal is the ground flaxseed that is produced after the oil is removed. It is a good source of protein and fiber.
Folic acid Folic acid, a B vitamin, is necessary for the proper functioning of many organs and systems. It is necessary for the proper transmission of nerve impulses, production of red and white blood cells, protein metabolism, and normal immune function.
Garlic powder Flavorful garlic is present in a small, safe amount as a flavor enhancer.
Ground flaxseed Ground flaxseed is a good source of protein, fiber, and the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid.
Guar gum Guar gum is extracted from the seed of the Cyamopsis tetragonoluba, an annual leguminous plant. Its easy solubility and water-binding properties make it an excellent stabilizer in canned foods.
Herring Atlantic Herring, considered a table delicacy, live in the cold waters of the North Atlantic, and have a fat content between 10% and 25%. Herring fat is more unsaturated than other animal fats and is high in essential omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (doscosahexaenoic acid).
Herring meal Herring meal is produced by cooking and drying fish tissues, then grinding the product into a meal. It is an excellent source of high quality protein, plus Omega-3 essential fatty acids, including EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (doscosahexaenoic acid).
Iron proteinate
Iron proteinate provides a very usable source of iron through the process of chelation. Iron is a key component of hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries oxygen to all tissues of the body. Iron is also necessary for the proper functioning of many of the enzymes in the body.
Iron sulfate
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Iron sulfate provides a very usable source of iron. Iron is a key component of hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries oxygen to all tissues of the body. Iron is also necessary for the proper functioning of many of the enzymes in the body.
Ingredient Description and Function
Lamb Real lamb meat is a delicious, highly digestible protein source with an excellent balance of essential amino acids. The lamb in Drs. Foster and Smith food is raised without hormones or steroids injected or added to the diet.
Lamb broth Lamb broth is obtained by steam-cooking wholesome lamb bones containing meat and muscle tissue. The flavorful broth, rich in proteinaceous solids, provides moisture and enhances palatability.
Lamb meal Lamb meal is produced by cooking and drying lamb tissues, then grinding the product into a meal. It is a highly digestible, delicious protein source with essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and minerals.
Lamb liver Liver is high in vitamins including A, D, E, and some of the B vitamins. Liver is also high in protein and mineral content, including iron, zinc, and selenium. Liver contains the essential sulfur-bearing amino acids cysteine and methionine. It also enhances palatability.
L-ascorbyl-2 polyphosphate L-ascorbyl-2 polyphosphate is a source of Vitamin C, which is necessary for healthy capillaries, gums, bones, and teeth. Vitamin C also aids in iron absorption, which is necessary for the formation of hemoglobin. In addition, Vitamin C is an antioxidant nutrient. Vitamin C is also active in maintaining a healthy immune system and helps form collagen in connective tissue.
L-Carnitine L-Carnitine is an amino acid derivative that may help to increase lean body mass and decrease fat. This can be helpful during weight loss, when we want pets to lose fat but retain lean muscle.
Manganese proteinate Manganese proteinate is a chelated form of manganese. Manganese is necessary for the proper functioning of many body enzymes, and is required for proper metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, and the production of healthy bone.
Manganous oxide Manganese oxide provides a very usable source of manganese. Manganese is necessary for the proper functioning of many body enzymes, and is required for proper metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, and the production of healthy bone.
Menadione sodium bisulfite complex A complex form of Vitamin K, which is essential for the proper clotting of blood. It is also necessary for production of healthy bone as well as normal growth and development.
Mixed tocopherols Natural antioxidants, tocopherols stabilize the fats in food and are included as natural preservatives.
Natural flavor Natural flavors are created when sources such as spices, fruits, vegetables, herbs, meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, or dairy products are roasted, or broken down with enzymes. The remaining products (essential oils, essences, extracts, and so on) are then used to enhance palatability. Natural flavors, by definition, cannot be derived from any source that is chemically altered.
Niacin
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Niacin, also called nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, or Vitamin B3, is essential for healthy nerves, brain function, and skin. Niacin is also necessary in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Ingredient Description and Function
Oat fiber Oat fiber is an excellent fiber source that helps support normal bowel function and maintain proper stool firmness.
Oat groats Oat groats are cleaned oats with the hulls removed. They are an excellent source of complex carbohydrates and fiber.
Ocean white fish Ocean white fish refers to several deep-water varieties of edible white fish. The fat of deep-water white fish is more unsaturated than the fats of other animal sources and is high in essential Omega-3 fatty acids.
Pea seed coats Pea seed coats are an excellent source of fiber, which helps support normal bowel function and maintain proper stool firmness.
Potassium chloride Potassium chloride is a source of the mineral, potassium, which is essential for the proper functioning of nerves, muscle contraction, and maintaining the correct pH of the blood.
Potassium iodide Potassium iodide is a source of iodine, which is essential for proper functioning of the thyroid gland and normal cell function.
Potatoes The edible tuber of Solanum tuberosum, the potato is rich in starch and is a source of carbohydrates, energy and fiber.
Potato protein Concentrated protein that is removed from the de-starched potato.
Potato starch The starch, mostly carbohydrate, is the chief storage form of energy in plants. The starch granules are removed from the potato and dried.
Powdered cellulose Powdered cellulose is purified, mechanically disintegrated cellulose prepared by processing alpha cellulose obtained as a pulp from fibrous plant materials. Cellulose is used to provide an increased level of fiber in the diet.
Pyridoxine hydrochloride Pyridoxine hydrochloride, a form of Vitamin B6, is essential for healthy tissue growth through the proper metabolism of proteins. Pyridoxine hydrochloride is also involved in the metabolism of the precursor of heme (a vital component of blood) and is required for the brain and nervous system to function normally.
Riboflavin/Riboflavin supplement Riboflavin, also known as Vitamin B2, is an antioxidant nutrient. In addition to helping prevent cell damage, riboflavin is necessary for the healthy of the eyes and skin. It is also required in the metabolism of energy.
Rosemary extract
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Rosemary is an herb from the evergreen plant Rosemarinus officinalis.
Ingredient Description and Function
Salmon Salmon are a delicious, nutrient-packed fish found in both freshwater and saltwater in the colder regions of the northern hemisphere. Salmon fat is more unsaturated than the fats of other animal sources and is high in essential Omega-3 fatty acids.
Salmon meal Salmon meal is produced by cooking and drying fish tissues, then grinding the product into a meal. It is an excellent source of high quality protein, plus Omega-3 essential fatty acids, including EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (doscosahexaenoic acid).
Salt Salt, composed of sodium and chloride, is necessary for cell health, since it helps regulate fluid transfer in and out of cells and maintains proper pH of the blood. Sodium is also essential in transmitting nerve impulses and muscle contraction.
Sea salt Sea salt is a source of the minerals sodium and chloride.
Shrimp Shrimp are high in protein and are highly palatable
Sodium ascorbate Sodium ascorbate, a form of Vitamin C, is essential for healthy capillaries, gums, bones, and teeth. Vitamin C also aids in iron absorption, which is necessary for the formation of hemoglobin. In addition, Vitamin C is an antioxidant nutrient. Vitamin C is also active in maintaining a healthy immune system and helps form collagen in connective tissue.
Sodium phosphate Sodium phosphate is a source of phosphorus. Phosphorus is necessary for energy production and the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and protein. Calcium and phosphorus also help maintain the proper pH level of the blood.
Sodium selenite Sodium selenite is a good source of the essential mineral selenium, which is necessary for proper muscle function and the production of hormones by the thyroid gland. Selenium also enhances the antioxidant characteristics of Vitamin E, and is necessary for maintaining fertility.
Sunflower oil Sunflower oil is a good source of energy from fat and is a source of essential fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (LA), an Omega-6 fatty acid, which promotes healthy skin and coat.
Sweet potatoes Sweet potatoes are an excellent source of complex carbohydrates (fiber), potassium, vitamins, minerals, and beta-carotene.
Taurine Taurine is an essential amino acid for cats, and is also used by dogs for healthy eyes and heart, as well as reproductive health.
Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine mononitrate is a form of Vitamin B1, which maintains normal function of the nervous system, muscles, and heart, and is necessary for normal growth and development.
Tomato Pomace Tomato pomace is a mixture of tomato skins, pulp and crushed seeds. Tomatoes contain lycopene and are a good source of Vitamin C. Lycopene and Vitamin C are both antioxidant nutrients. Tomato pomace is also a good source of healthy fiber.
Tricalcium phosphate Tricalcium phosphate is a source of calcium and phosphorus, minerals that promote healthy teeth and bones. Calcium is necessary for blood clotting, muscle function, and transmitting nerve impulses. Phosphorus is necessary for energy production and the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and protein. Calcium and phosphorus also help maintain the proper pH level of the blood.
Trout
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Trout are a delicious protein source, and like salmon, are high in essential Omega-3 fatty acids.
Ingredient Description and Function
Turkey Turkey is a highly digestible protein source, with an excellent quantity and ratio of essential amino acids. It is also highly palatable.
Turkey broth Turkey broth is obtained by steam-cooking wholesome turkey bones and muscle tissue. The flavorful broth, rich in proteinaceous solids, provides moisture and enhances palatability.
Vitamin A supplement Vitamin A is necessary for the proper functioning of the immune system, and the growth and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth, muscle, hair and skin. It is also required for maintaining healthy linings of the digestive tract, reproductive system, lungs, and mucous membranes.
Vitamin B12 supplement Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is necessary for red blood cell formation and proper functioning of the nervous system.
Vitamin D3 supplement Vitamin D3 supplement is necessary for the proper use of calcium and phosphorus by the body, thus necessary in the growth and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. Vitamin D3 is also required for maintaining a healthy immune system and the production of insulin.
Vitamin E supplement Vitamin E is an antioxidant nutrient. Vitamin E is also necessary for the health of many body systems and organs including the skin, muscles, immune system, and reproductive tract.
Zinc oxide Zinc oxide provides a very usable source of zinc. Zinc is necessary in converting carbohydrates into energy, and required for proper wound healing, a healthy immune system, growth, and reproduction.
Zinc proteinate Zinc proteinate is a form of chelated zinc. Zinc is necessary in converting carbohydrates into energy, and required for proper wound healing, a healthy immune system, growth, and reproduction.

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