Bar: Area on the underside of the hoof on either side of the frog where the hoof wall angles in.
Boxy Hooves: Narrow, upright hooves with a small frog and closed heel. Also called club foot.
Brushing Boots: Item of horse equipment used to protect the horse's legs from injury due to brushing.
Brushing: Where the hoof or shoe hits the inside of the opposite leg, at or near the fetlock. Usually caused by poor conformation or action.
Coronet: The part of the hoof right above the horny growth; where hoof growth occurs.
Cracked Heels: Inflammation of the heels, resulting in cracked skin and discharge of pus.
Deep Going: Term used to describe ground that is wet or soft, into which the hooves sink.
Dropped Sole: Downward rotation of toe of coffin bone inside hoof due to chronic founder or laminitis.
Farrier: Skilled craftsman who trims horses hooves, and may also shoe horses.
Flat-footed: When the angle of the foot is noticeably less than 45 degrees.
Founder: Inflammation of the laminae of the foot, which serve to attach the coffin bone to the hoof wall; also known as laminitis.
Frog: Fleshy pad in the central area of the underside of the hoof. About 50% of the frog is water.
Heel: Back portion of the underside of the hoof.
Hoof Pick: A pick used to remove debris from the hoof.
Hoof: The foot as a whole in horses. The curved covering of horn over the foot.
Horn: Hard, insensitive outer covering of the hoof.
Hoof Wall: Upper portion of the hoof that you see. Divided into heel, quarter, and toe. Grows continuously.
Laminae: The horny-grooved inside of the hoof.
Laminitis: Inflammation of the laminae (the inside lining of the hoof) of the foot, which serve to attach the coffin bone to the hoof wall; also known as founder.
Lateral Cartilages: Wings of cartilage attached to the coffin bone, within the foot.
Navicular Bone: Small bone within the hoof, fitting horizontally between the second phalanx, or short pastern and the coffin bone.
Navicular Disease: Degeneration of the navicular bone, usually on the back surface where the deep flexor tendon passes over the bone. Causes pain and lameness.
Nerve Block: Diagnostic tool in which the veterinarian progressively blocks the nerves of the hoof and leg in order to determine the location of a lameness.
Neurectomy: Cutting of nerves supplying sensation to the foot. Also known as de-nerving. Used as a treatment in cases of navicular disease.
Pathological: A disease condition.
Seedy Toe: Separation of the hoof wall from the sensitive laminae, often caused by neglecting the feet. Sometimes accompanies laminitis.
Shoe, To: The act of fitting and securing metal shoes to the horse's hooves, usually done by a farrier.
Sidebone: Ossification of the lateral cartilage on either side of the coffin bone within the hoof.
Sole: Portion of the underside of the hoof from the frog to the front part of the white line.
Thrush: Degenerative condition of the frog of the foot characterized by infection and blackening of the affected area; usually occurs in horses housed under unsanitary conditions.
White Line: On underside of hoof, soft structure that delineates sensitive areas (frog, sole, bars), from insensitive ones (hoof wall).